Bhavishya Purana : The Prediction of Islam and Prophet Muhammad

Muhammad- Is he a demon or the destroyer of the devil?

Sometime back I came across several write ups of Hindus where they attempted to refute the Muslim claim that Prophet Muhammad was predicted in the Bhavishya Purana as a true Prophet of God. The main blog which attempts to prove that Muhammad (peace be upon him) was a demon (God Forbid) is The Hindu opinions in this regard, however, are divergent. Some Hindus rejected Bhavishya Purana as an interpolated scripture because it even contains the events of the British Empire in India and mention of Queen Victoria. Other Hindus decided to take a unique route. They accepted that Prophet Muhammad was mentioned in the Bhavishya Purana but in a negative manner as a demon incarnate rather than a saintly person.

They attempted to do this only by picking few words in from the Sanskrit text of Prati Sarg Parv where this is mentioned and translating them in a wrong manner.


I will present before you the correct interpretation of the passage from the Bhavishya Purana and refute the evil propaganda of these misled Hindus who are driven by the ideology of hate, because they consider all non Indians as evil and untouchable.

http://wc8voa.org/wp-json/oembed/1.0/embed?url=http://wc8voa.org/wcara-officers/ My opinion about Bhavishya Purana: No doubt it is a highly interpolated book, just like the other books of Hinduism are interpolated, be it the Vedas (click enter here and http://thenannycollective.com.au/families/our-services/ here), the Mabharata, the Gita (click here), etc. Islam is not dependent on this Purana or other Purana to prove itself. Let the whole corpus of Hindu texts speak ill of Islam, still that would have no impact on the veracity of Islam. Still, the chapter in question does not necessarily speak about Islam in a negative manner, as the Hindu propagandists are claiming. With Almighty’s help, I will refute their mistranslation and misinterpretation to the core.

THE MAIN REFUTATION

The first thing one has to understand about the relevant passage of Bhavishya Purana, is that it is a dream or a vision and not an actual reality because no meeting of any Raja Bhoj happened with Prophet Muhammad, nor does history record any such interaction. Dreams always have to be interpreted and not taken too literally. The figures in the dreams have deep meaning which needs to be revealed. This is the only plausible way to interpret this chapter. I will highlight the main figures of this dream/vision and what they symbolize. They are as follows:

1. Mahamad: Stands for Prophet Muhammad, as well as Islam.

2. Raja Bhoj: Symbolizes the dominant innocent Hindu population of India

3. Kalidaas: Symbolizes the shrewd Brahmins and Swamis of India

4: Angelic being: Symbolizes God or at times his envoy (doot)

The Sanskrit text of Pratisarg Parv 3; Khand 3; Adhyaai 3; Shlokas 5 to 27 is given below

INCORRECT TRANSLATION OF SHLOKAS 5-8 AS GIVEN BY THE HINDUS

He crossed the river Sindhu and conquered over the gandharas, mlecchas, shakas, kasmiris, naravas and sathas. He punished them and collected a large ammount of wealth. Then the king went along with Mahamada (Muhammad), the preceptor of mleccha-dharma, and his followers to the great god, Lord Shiva, situated in the desert. He bathed Lord Shiva with Ganges water and worshipped him in his mind with pancagavya (milk, ghee, yoghurt, cow dung, and cow urine) and sandalwood paste, etc. After he offered some prayers and pleased him.

CORRECT TRANSLATION

At that time a spiritual teacher (Acharya) known as Mahamad (Muhammad) appeared amongst the Mlecchas (non Indians/non Aryans), along with his companions/disciples. The King after giving this Mahaa Deva (of angelic disposition) dweller of the desert (Marusthal Nivasi), a bath in the Panchgavya and the Ganges water (meaning honouring and praising him) offered him presents and showing him all reverence said: “I pay obeisance to you (Namaste) O Pride of Humanity (Girija Nath) dweller of the desert (Marusthal Nivaasi/Arabian dweller). You are the destroyer of the Devil (Tripurasur Naashaaya) who propagates deceit. You have been protected by fellow Mlecchas, and you are the embodiment of Divine Qualities (Sacchidanand Roopine). I am a your servant, and have come seeking your refuge.

Few points come out of these verses.

  1. Mahamad (Muhammad) has been called an Acharya (a spiritual teacher) of Mlecchas (the illiterate people).
  2. The King Bhoj (innocent Indian people) will yearn to follow Prophet Muhammad with all humility and accept him as their teacher.
  3. Muhammad is the destroyer of the Devil. Tripurasur in Puranic mythology stands for the Devil.
  4. Muhammad is a dweller of the desert. It cannot refer to Lord Shiva of the Puranas because his abode is said to be the Mount Kailash in the Himlayas and not the desert.
  5. The Prophet will be given protection against his enemies, by the fellow Mlecchas.
  6. Raja Bhoj washed the Prophet with Ganges water and Panchgavya. Since this is a vision, it cannot be taken literally but must be taken as symbolic for honour.
  7. He is called as the embodiment of divine qualities.

MEANINGS OF CERTAIN WORDS

Mleccha (म्लेच्छ): The word means a non Aryan, a foreigner, non Sanskrit speaking person according to its origin. Mleccha म्लेच्छ is itself a root according to Panini’s Dhatupath CHURADIGAN (tenth conjugation) चुरादिगणः whose meaning is अव्यक्तायां वाचि or unclear language. Mleccha only means one who speaks a foreign unknown language. it does not mean wicked according to Dhatupath of Panini. Later, it also took on the meaning of barbarian or an evil person. The reason for this is that according to the Castist Hindu view only Aryans are civilized and superior people. The rest of the world beyond the boundary of ‘Aryavarta’ is inferior and evil. As Hinduism is a religion which encourages racial discrimination and linguistic chauvinism, it is natural that they will look down upon the rest of the world as inferior; their religions as inferior, their language as inferior. From this perspective the word Mleccha, which stands for a non-Sanskrit speaking foreigner, has become synonymous with a barbarian. Below is the meaning of this word from Monier Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary.

Mleccha

The distinction between Aryas and Mlecchas is not on the basis of character but on the basis nationality as is clearly demarcated by Manu Smriti chapter 2: verses 21-23.

“21. That (country) which (lies) between the Himavat and the Vindhya (mountains) to the east of Prayaga and to the west of Vinasana (the place where the river Sarasvati disappears) is called Madhyadesa (the central region).

22. But (the tract) between those two mountains (just mentioned), which (extends) as far as the eastern and the western oceans, the wise call Aryavarta (the country of the Aryans).

23. That land where the black antelope naturally roams, one must know to be fit for the performance of sacrifices; (the tract) different from that (is) the country of the Mlecchas.”

Thus, according to the discriminatory interpretation of Hindus, only Aryavarta aka India is the place where noble people are found and the rest of the world is filled with evil people. Thus, Aryas are called Aryas (Noble) because they belong to the Aryavarta and Mlecchas are called so not because they are evil but because they are foreigners.

Thus the passage of Bhavishya Purana mentioning the Prophet Muhammad is among the Mlecchas means a foreigner, not a wicked man. If Hindus will insist that Mleccha means a sinner still that meaning will apply because Prophet Muhammad (sws) was raised by God to be a teacher (Acharya/Muallim) to the sinners of that time and purify them spiritually, teach them the Book of God and the Wisdom of it. In fact the Quran testifies to this in Surah 62 (al-Jumuah) verse 2 when it says

“It is He (God) Who has sent amongst the Unlettered People a messenger from among themselves, to rehearse to them His Signs, to sanctify them, and to instruct them in Scripture and Wisdom — although they had been, before, in manifest error”

However, let me disprove the Hindu polemicists conclusively by establishing from Bhavishya Puran itself that the meaning of Mleccha is not necessarily bad.

The Aryan religion had slowly degenerated into a corrupted form and needed to be substituted by the Mleccha religion. This is mentioned in Bhavishya Puran Prati Sarg parv as follows,

“Corruption and violence will be the widespread in the seven sacred cities (Kashi etc.), because they will be inhabited by Dasyu, Shabara, Bhilla and other foolish people. In the land of Mlecchas, the followers of Mleccha religion will be wise and brave people. All good qualities will be found in Mlecchas and all sorts of vices will accumulate in the Aryas. Bharata and its islands will be ruled by Mlecchas. Having known these facts, O Muni, glorify the name of your Lord.”

[Bhavishya Puran, Prati sarg parv (3); Khand 1; Adhyaai 5, Shlokas 38-40]

This refutes the claims of the Hindu blog that Mlecchas are always bad and Aryas are always good. Let them now come forward and disprove us, if they can.

OTHER SHLOKAS

Let us turn to the meaning of shlokas 9-14.

INCORRECT TRANSLATION OF SHLOKAS 9-14 AS GIVEN BY THE HINDUS

Suta Goswami said: After hearing the king’s prayers, Lord Shiva said: O king Bhojaraja, you should go to the place called Mahakakshvara, that land is called Vahika and now is being contaminated by the mlecchas. In that terrible country there no longer exists dharma. There was a mystic demon named Tripura (Tripurasura), whom I have already burnt to ashes, he has come again by the order of Bali. He has no origin but he achieved a benediction from me. His name is Mahamada (Muhammad) and his deeds are like that of a ghost. Therefore, O king, you should not go to this land of the evil ghost. By my mercy your intelligence will be purified. Hearing this the king came back to his country and Mahamada(Muhammad) came with them to the bank of the river Sindhu.

CORRECT TRANSLATION

“Suta Goswami said: After hearing the king’s praises, an angel (dev) said to him. “O Bhojraj, go to the place Mahakaaleshwar (in other words, look at the condition of that place). The Mlecchas have spoiled the well known land of the Arabs (Vahika Desh). Arya Dharm (the religion of truth in Indian parlance) is not to be found in that country. Before also there had appeared this Satan (Tripurasura: denoting Satanic times) whom I had killed. He has come again (meaning Satanic times have returned) by the order of the Devil. To show the right path to these misguided people and guide them to the truth, the well known Muhammad, who has been given the epithet of Brahma (Ayoni), is busy in bring the Pishachas (meat-eaters) to the right path. Therefore, O King, you need not go to this land of the foolish Pishachas. Through my mercy you will be sanctified here itself (in your own land). Hearing this the King returned to his country. Mahamada (Muhammad, signifying Islam) also came to the banks of the Sindhu””

Few points come out of these verses.

  1. The condition of Arabia will deteriorate and it will corrupted by evil-doers. Qurán has verified this condition prevailing in Arabia at the time of Prophet Muhammad in these words, “ظَهَرَ الْفَسَادُ فِي الْبَرِّ وَالْبَحْرِ بِمَا كَسَبَتْ أَيْدِي النَّاسِ Corruption has appeared throughout the land and sea by [reason of] what the hands of people have earned [Surah Rum 30: Verse 41]”
  2. The True Religion is not found there. Here, the Sanskrit terms Arya Dharm do not refer to Hinduism, but to the true religion in Indian parlance. This true religion of Ibraheem (Abraham/Brahma) had disappeared from Arabia. The Qurán has used the terms Deeni Hunafa and Deen al-Qayyim to describe this true religion, “وَمَا أُمِرُوا إِلَّا لِيَعْبُدُوا اللَّهَ مُخْلِصِينَ لَهُ الدِّينَ حُنَفَاءَ وَيُقِيمُوا الصَّلَاةَ وَيُؤْتُوا الزَّكَاةَ ۚ وَذَٰلِكَ دِينُ الْقَيِّمَةِ And they have been commanded no more than this: To worship Allah, offering Him sincere devotion, being true (in faith); to establish regular prayer; and to practice regular charity; and that is the Religion Right and Straight. [Surah Bayyinah 98: verse 4]”
  3. The present enemies of Prophet Muhammad and the Satanic elements will perish just like they perished in previous times such as the enemies of Prophet Noah, Lut, Saalih, Shuayb, Moses, Abraham etc the great civilizations like Aad, Thamud, Pharaoh, Namrud, etc perished ultimately. The word Tripurasur in this passage does not just stand for some mythological demon, but to the Satanic order. Remember this is a dream .
  4. In order to guide these misguided people Prophet Muhammad has been given the epithet of Brahma (Abraham) and he is busy in reforming his Arabian people. Hindus have mistranslated the term Ayoni as ‘having no origin’. If we adopt this meaning, the sentence becomes meaningless. Actually, in Hindu tradition, Ayoni is a title of Brahma (Brahma is sanskritized version of Abraham). The reason for giving Prophet Muhammad, the epithet of Brahma, is because just like Abraham (Brahma) fought against the sinfulness and idolatry of his time, similarly Prophet Muhammad will fight the idolatry of his time.
  5. King Bhoj (standing for the Indian people) will not have to go to Arabia. They will be purified when Muslims will arrive in India. So now that the Muslims have arrived in India, the Hindus should convert to Islam.

OTHER SHLOKAS

Now let us turn to the meaning of shlokas 15 onwards.

INCORRECT TRANSLATION OF SHLOKAS 15 ONWARDS AS GIVEN BY THE HINDUS

He was expert in expanding illusion, so he said to the king very pleasingly: O great king, your god has become my servant. Just see, as he eats my remnants, so I will show you. The king became surprised when he saw this just before them. Then in anger Kalidasa rebuked Mahamada(Muhammad) “O rascal, you have created an illusion to bewilder the king, I will kill you, you are the lowest…”

CORRECT TRANSLATION

This prince (i.e. Muhammad), full of wisdom, affectionately said to the King: “O King, your deities are my servants. Just see, they eat my leftover food”. Hearing this argument and seeing this, the King was surprised and was mulling to convert to this foreign religion. Then in terrible anger, Kalidas rebuked Mahamada (Muhammad) by saying, “O cheat, you have bewildered the King, with your wisdom. I will kill you, the wicked person that you are.”

Points come out of this passage

As you can see the Hindus are consistently mistranslating some words and not translating some other words. The words “the King was surprised and was mulling to convert to this foreign religion” are not given by the Hindu translation. This shows their intellectual dishonesty. Now, here are the inferences from this passage:

  1. The Hindus here mistranslated the word Maayaa as illusion, when in reality it also carries the meaning of Wisdom (See Monier Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary). Even in Rigveda 1/11/7 , the word Maayaa has been used in a positive sense for Lord Indra who is supposed to have resorted to Maayaa in order to defeat his enemies. मायाभिरिन्द्र मायिनं तवं शुष्णमवातिरः | The wily Śuṣṇa, Indra! thou overthrew with your wondrous powers.
  2. As all these events are happening in a dream, we need to interpret them properly. Now here, Prophet Muhammad reasons AFFECTIONATELY with Raja Bhoj (the Indian people), that the things/animals you worship in Hinduism, eat our leftover food. How then do they deserve our worship? This is the Prophetic method of argument. Prophets have an affection towards the people to whom they are sent. The Prophets urge people to use their mind and turn to the worship of one God, and leave the senseless worship of animals and other created things. The Prophet speaks wisely and affectionately with the people hoping that they will understand. Do they understand?
  3. Yes, Raja Bhoj, (symbolizing the majority of the people), is attracted to the plain message of the Prophet Muhammad. The people know that this argument is good and they feel attracted to Islam and think of converting to Islam. This is true even of modern times. Whenever the polytheistic people are questioned that how can you worship something which is lower than humans, they agree in their heart to this truth.
  4. But here comes the hurdle. As soon as the shrewd Brahmin priests (symbolized by Kalidas) get to know that the Indian people are attracted to Islam and will convert to Islam, they start their mischievous propaganda. Their most effective trick is to vilify Islam, insult the Prophet and try to ruin his image in the minds of the ordinary Hindus, so that people are no longer attracted to Islam. They even try to kill the Prophet (Muslims), because they have no knowledgeable response to the plain questions. This same strategy is being spoken of in this passage. Kalidas (i.e. the shrewd Brahmins), not able to respond to the plain argument of the Prophet (and Muslims), starts to rebuke the Prophet and call him insulting titles like cheat, fraud, magician, etc. This attitude of the enemies of Islam is even spoken of in the Holy Qurán in these words. فَلَمَّا جَاءَهُمُ الْحَقُّ مِنْ عِنْدِنَا قَالُوا إِنَّ هَٰذَا لَسِحْرٌ مُبِينٌ “When the Truth did come to them from Us, they said: “This is indeed evident magic!” [Surah Yunus 10: verse 76] فَلَمَّا جَاءَتْهُمْ آيَاتُنَا مُبْصِرَةً قَالُوا هَٰذَا سِحْرٌ مُبِينٌ “But when Our Signs came to them, that should have opened their eyes, they said: “This is sorcery manifest!” [Surah Naml 27: verse 13] إِنَّ الَّذِينَ يَكْفُرُونَ بِآيَاتِ اللَّهِ وَيَقْتُلُونَ النَّبِيِّينَ بِغَيْرِ حَقٍّ وَيَقْتُلُونَ الَّذِينَ يَأْمُرُونَ بِالْقِسْطِ مِنَ النَّاسِ فَبَشِّرْهُمْ بِعَذَابٍ أَلِيمٍ “As to those who deny the Signs of Allah and in defiance of right, slay the prophets, and slay those who teach just dealing with mankind, announce to them a grievous penalty.” [Surah Aalim Imran 3: verse 21]

The lesson in this passage of Bhavishya Purana is that people of India should not fall in the tricks of shrewd Brahmin priests like VHP/RSS/Arya Samaj/ISKCON/Art of Living/Agniveer/Ramdev etc. They should ignore their propaganda against Islam and Prophet Muhammad and embrace the religion of Prophet Muhammad, who loves them and is affectionate to them.

OTHER SHLOKAS

Now let us turn to the meaning of shlokas 22 onwards.

INCORRECT TRANSLATION OF SHLOKAS 22 ONWARDS AS GIVEN BY THE HINDUS

That city is known as their site of pilgrimage, a place which was Madina or free from intoxication. Having a form of a ghost (Bhuta), the expert illusionist Mahamada(Muhammad) appeared at night in front of king Bhojaraja and said: O king, your religion is of course known as the best religion among all. Still I am going to establish a terrible and demoniac religion by the order of the Lord . The symptoms of my followers will be that they first of all will cut their genitals, have no shikha, but having beard, be wicked, make noise loudly and eat everything. They should eat animals without performing any rituals. This is my opinion. They will perform purificatory act with the musala or a pestle as you purify your things with kusha. Therefore, they will be known as musalman, the corrupters of religion. Thus the demoniac religion will be founded by me. After having heard all this the king came back to his palace and that ghost(Muhammad) went back to his place.

CORRECT TRANSLATION

That city is known as their site of pilgrimage, a place which was Madina or free from intoxication. An angelic being (Dev/standing for God’s envoy), in the form of a Pisacha appeared at night in front of king Bhojaraja and said: O king, your Arya Dharma has been known as the best religion among all, still I am now going to establish a strong meat-eating religion by the order of the Lord. The peculiar features of my followers will be that they will be circumcised, have no shikha, having a beard, revolutionary, make Azaan (call to prayer) loudly and will assimilate all religions. They will eat animals without performing elaborate Hindu rituals. They will purified with the musala or a pestle as you purify your things with kusha. They will be known as Musalmaan, and will refute the (false) religion. This the meat-eating religion will be founded by me. After having heard all this the king came back to his palace and that angelic being also went away.

Points to be considered.

  1. The city of Madina is spoken as being free from intoxication (Mad Heen). We know that wine barrels were emptied in the streets of Madina, never to be refilled. This is a righteous city.
  2. The angelic being (devroop) here is a God’s envoy who is informing the Indian people of the features of Muslims.
  3. Arya Dharma will be substituted by Islam, as the old religion has become corrupted. We all know that the Vedas, Upanishads, Mahabharata, Gita, and Purans have become corrupted. Vedas are not studied by common masses anymore and they are too voluminous to be books of daily guidance. For this reason, the Holy Qurán is substituting them.
  4. God will establish the meat eating religion. Hinduism had wrongly become vegetarian and abadoned meat eating under the influence of Buddhism and Jainism. Otherwise in Vedas and other Hindu scriptures, meat eating is allowed. Now Islam will be again allowing consumption of meat. The word Pishacha Dharma in this passage has been wrongly translated by the Hindus as a demoniac religion. It actually means meat eating religion. Because meat eating in corrupted Hinduism had been looked down upon as demoniac act, therefore the Pishacha was equated to demon. Otherwise from its root, it stands for meat. पिशित in Sanskrit means flesh or meat; पेशी means a lump of flesh or meat. So highlighting one word just to deceive ordinary Hindus in thinking of Islam as a demoniac religion, is real demoniac behaviour of the shrewd Brahmins, (depicted by Kalidas).
  5. This passage also speaks of the features of Muslims, which we all know of. I will only explain few of the contentious words because they tend to be emphasized by the Hindu blog. The passage uses the word Dushaka (दूषक) which normally is thought to mean polluted. However, in Sanskrit it carries another meaning of दोष Dosha (Blame; Objection; Refutation). Some of the meanings of the word दूषण Dooshana in V.S. Apte’s Practical Sanskrit-English Dictionaryare,
    • Adverse argument
    • Criticism
    • Objection
    • Refutation

    Therefore, Dharmadooshaka in this context here will mean refuter of false religion. One that will put false religious beliefs and practices in the dock and abandon them. Now, when it does so, obviously, from the perspective of the people of those false religions, it will a pollution or corruption of their false religion. So, if we adopt that meaning also, it is perfectly okay. It is a fact that Islam refutes the false ideas like Caste System, which was made the integral part of Hindu Religion. To the Hindus, who believe in this system, certainly, abolishing caste is a corruption in Hindu religion, because without Caste System there is no Hinduism. So, Islam’s message of equality of all humans, did not go well with the shrewd Brahmins.

  6. Islam is the future of India.

Let the common Hindus not fall into the trap of Hindutva propaganda against Islam and Prophet Muhammad and without any further delay, accept the pure religion of Islam, and fulfill this dream of Bhavishya Puran.

Meaning of Asur असुर

The Hindu blog attempted to make the common Hindus believe that Prophet Muhammad was an Asur (demon). But let me expose their falsehood. They do not even know their own scriptures. If Asur only means evil spirit or demon, may I ask, why are Hindu Vedic deities like Indra, Agni aur Rudra given the attribute of Asur? Impossible!, said the Hindu with whom I discussed. “Don’t worry”, I said. “I will show you”. So saying I quoted from Rigveda 1/24/14

अव ते हेळो वरुण नमोभिरव यज्ञेभिरीमहे हविर्भिः |कषयन्नस्मभ्यमसुर परचेता राजन्नेनांसि शिश्रथः कर्तानि ||

With bending down, oblations, sacrifices, O Varuna, we deprecate your anger: Wise Asura, you King of wide dominion, loosen the bonds of sins by us committed.

Here, Vedic God, Varuna has been called as Asura.

Again in Rigveda 8/42/1 Varuna has been called as Asura

अस्तभ्नाद दयामसुरो विश्ववेदा अमिमीत वरिमाणं पर्थिव्याः |

LORD of all wealth, the Asura propped the heavens, and measured out the broad earth’s wide expanses.

Indra is called Asura in Rigved 1/54/3

बर्हच्छ्रवा असुरो बर्हणा कर्तः पुरो हरिभ्यां वर्षभो रथो हि षः ||

High glory hath the Asura, compact of strength, drawn on by two Bay Steeds: a Bull, a Car is he.

Rigved 1/174/1

तवं राजेन्द्र ये च देवा रक्षा नॄन पाह्यसुर तवमस्मान |

YOU art the King of all the Gods, O Indra: protect the men, O Asura, preserve us.

Agni is also called Asura is Rigveda 5/12/1

पराग्नये बर्हते यज्ञियाय रतस्य वर्ष्णे असुराय मन्म |

To Agni, lofty Asura, meet for worship, Steer of eternal Law, my prayer I offer;

Rudra, who in the Puranas is known as Shiva is also called Asura in Rigveda 5/42/11

यक्ष्वा महे सौमनसाय रुद्रं नमोभिर देवम असुरं दुवस्य ||

Worship thou Rudra for his great good favour: adore the Asura, God, with salutations.

These are more than sufficient to refute the Hindu claim that Asura is a demon. If they want to malign Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) as a demon, let them first malign their own gods whom they worship with pride.

इस्लाम_की_सच्चाई अधिकांश मुर्दा हिन्दू तो शेयर भी नहीं करेंगे,,धिक्कार है ऐसे हिन्दुओ पर !!

रामायण में सभी राक्षसों का वध हुआ था।
लेकिन शूर्पनखा का वध नहीं हुआ था
उसकी नाक और कान काट कर छोड़ दिया गया था ।
वह कपडे से अपने चेहरे को छुपा कर
रहती थी ।

रावण के मर जाने के बाद वह
अपने पति के साथ शुक्राचार्य के पास
गयी और जंगल में उनके आश्रम में रहने लगी ।

राक्षसों का वंश ख़त्म न
हो
इसलिए, शुक्राचार्य ने शिव
जी की आराधना की ।

शिव जी ने
अपना स्वरुप शिवलिंग शुक्राचार्य को दे कर कहा की जिस दिन कोई “वैष्णव” इस पर
गंगा जल चढ़ा देगा उस दिन
राक्षसों का नाश हो जायेगा ।

उस आत्म लिंग को शुक्राचार्य ने वैष्णव मतलब हिन्दुओं से दूर रेगिस्तान में स्थापित किया

जो आज अरब में “मक्का मदीना” में है ।
शूर्पनखा जो उस समय चेहरा ढक कर रखती थी वो परंपरा को उसके बच्चो ने पूरा निभाया ओर आज भी मुस्लिम औरतें चेहरा ढकी रहती हैं।

शूर्पनखा के वंशज
आज मुसलमान कहलाते हैं ।
क्यूँकी शुक्राचार्य ने इनको जीवन दान
दिया , इस लिए ये शुक्रवार को विशेष
महत्त्व देते हैं ।

पूरी जानकारी तथ्यों पर आधारित सच है।⛳

जानिए इस्लाम कैसे पैदा हुआ..

असल में इस्लाम कोई धर्म नहीं है .एक मजहब है..
दिनचर्या है..

मजहब का मतलब अपने कबीलों के गिरोह को बढ़ाना..

यह बात सब जानते है की मोहम्मदी मूलरूप से अरब वासी है ।

अरब देशो में सिर्फ रेगिस्तान पाया जाता है.वहां जंगल नहीं है, पेड़ नहीं है. इसीलिए वहां मरने के बाद जलाने
के लिए लकड़ी न होने के कारण ज़मीन में दफ़न कर दिया जाता था.

यह भी पढ़े   ‘बॉलीवुड के खिलाड़ी’ यानि अक्षय कुमार का मानवीय चेहरा एक बार फिर सामने आया है, शेयर करे

रेगिस्तान में हरीयाली नहीं होती.. ऐसे में रेगिस्तान में हरा चटक रंग देखकर इंसान चला आता की यहाँ जीवन है ओर ये हरा रंग सूचक का काम करता था..

अरब देशो में लोग रेगिस्तान में तेज़ धुप में सफ़र करते थे, इसीलिए वहां के लोग सिर को ढकने के लिए
टोपी पहनते थे।
जिससे की लोग बीमार न पड़े.

अब रेगिस्तान में खेत तो नहीं थे, न फल, तो खाने के लिए वहा अनाज नहीं होता था. इसीलिए वहा के
लोग जानवरों को काट कर खाते थे. और अपनी भूख मिटाने के लिए इसे क़ुर्बानी का नाम दिया गया।
सब लोग एक ही कबिले के खानाबदोश होते थे इसलिए
आपस में भाई बहन ही निकाह कर लेते थे।

रेगिस्तान में मिट्टी मिलती नहीं थी मुर्ती बनाने को इसलिए मुर्ती पुजा नहीं करते थे| खानाबदोश थे ,

एक जगह से दुसरी जगह
जाना पड़ता था इसलिए कम बर्तन रखते थे और एक थाली नें पांच लोग खाते थे|

कबीले की अधिक से अधिक संख्या बढ़े इसलिए हर एक
को चार बीवी रखने की इज़ाजत दी जाती थी
..
अब समझे इस्लाम कोई धर्म नहीं मात्र एक कबीला है..
और इसके नियम असल में इनकी दिनचर्या है ।

नोट : पोस्ट पढ़के इसके बारे में सोचो।

#इस्लाम_की_सच्चाई

अगर हर हिँदू माँ-बाप अपने बच्चों को बताए कि अजमेर दरगाह वाले ख्वाजा मोईनुद्दीन चिश्ती ने किस तरह इस्लाम कबूल ना करने पर पृथ्वीराज चौहान की पत्नी संयोगिता को मुस्लिम सैनिकों के बीच बलात्कार करने के लिए निर्वस्त्र करके फेँक दिया था ।

और फिर किस तरह पृथ्वीराज चौहान की वीर पुत्रियों ने आत्मघाती बनकर मोइनुद्दीन चिश्ती को 72 हूरों के पास भेजा था ।
तो शायद ही कोई हिँदू उस मुल्ले की कब्र पर माथा पटकने जाए

यह भी पढ़े   मुगलों की अश्लीलता जानकर आप दंग रह जायेंगे, देखें ये विडियो

“अजमेर के ख्वाजा मुइनुद्दीन चिश्ती को ९० लाख हिंदुओं को इस्लाम में लाने का गौरव प्राप्त है ।
मोइनुद्दीन चिश्ती ने ही मोहम्मद गोरी को भारत लूटने के लिए उकसाया और आमंत्रित किया था…

(सन्दर्भ – उर्दू अखबार “पाक एक्सप्रेस, न्यूयार्क १४ मई २०१२).

अधिकांश मुर्दा हिन्दू तो शेयर भी नहीं करेंगे,,धिक्कार है ऐसे हिन्दुओ पर !!

Apsaras and Gandharvas

In the Vedas, the apsaras are water nymphs, often married to the gandharvas. By the time the Puranas and the two epics were composed, the apsaras and gandharvas had become performing artists to the gods; the apsaras are singers, dancers, and courtesans, while the gandharvas are musicians. They are somewhat semi-divine; we do not see them as being able to curse humans (except on one occasion) or grant them boons as gods can, but we do see them as adept in magic and knowledgeable in all of the 64 performing arts; additionally, we see many gandharvas skilled in warfare.

IN THE VEDAS

The oldest conception of the apsaras is as river nymphs, and companions to the gandharvas. They are also seen to live on trees, such as the banyan and the sacred fig, and are entreated to bless wedding processions. Apsaras dance, sing, and play around. They are exceedingly beautiful, and because they can cause mental derangement, they are beings who are to be feared. The Rig Veda mentions one apsara by name; she is Urvasi, wife to Pururava, who is an ancestor of the Kauravas and Pandavas. The story is that Urvasi lived with Pururava, a human king, for a while and then left him to return to her apsara and gandharva companions. The distraught Pururava, while wandering around in a forest, spotted Urvasi playing in a river with her friends, and begged her to return to the palace with him. She refused.

किमेता वाचा कृणवा तवाहं प्राक्रमिषमुषसामग्रियेव । पुरूरवः पुनरस्तं परेहि दुरापना वात इवाहमस्मि ॥

न वै स्त्रैणानि सख्यानि सन्ति सालावृकाणां हृदयान्येता ॥

I have moved on from you like the first rays of dawn. Go home, Pururava; I am as hard to catch as the wind.

Female friendship does not exist; their hearts are the hearts of jackals. [Rig Veda, 10.95]

The gandharvas are companions to the apsaras. They are handsome, possess brilliant weapons, and wear fragrant clothes. They guard the Soma but do not have the right to drink it. How they lost this right has a story: in one version, the gandharvas failed to guard the Soma properly, resulting in it being stolen. Indra brought back the Soma and, as a punishment for their dereliction of duty, the gandharvas were excluded from the Soma draught. In another version, the gandharvas were the original owners of the Soma. They sold it to the gods in exchange for a goddess – the goddess Vach (speech) – because they are very fond of female company.

Apsara

Some scholars trace the origin of the gandharvas to the Indo-Iranian period because the Avesta contains references to a similar being (although in the singular, not plural) called Gandarewa who lives in the sea of white Haoma (Soma).

IN LATER LITERATURE

DUE TO THEIR FRIVOLOUS NATURE AS PERFORMING ARTISTS, APSARAS & GANDHARVAS ARE OFTEN CURSED BY SAGES TO BE BORN ON EARTH AS TREES, ANIMALS, OR DEFORMED BEINGS.

In the epics and the Puranas, the apsaras and gandharvas are artistes who perform at the court of Indra and other gods. They are also seen to sing and dance on other happy occasions such as births and weddings of the gods and also of humans particularly favoured by the gods. Additionally, the apsaras are courtesans to the gods and are frequently employed by Indra to distract kings and sages who Indra fears to be progressing along the path of divinity (and hence capable of depriving Indra of his throne). The Kuru-Pandava teacher Drona was born because his father lost control on seeing an apsara; the famous queen Shakuntala was born of an apsara whom Indra sent to seduce the great sage Vishwamitra (Shakuntala’s son Bharat was an ancestor of the Kuru-Pandavas; the country, India, is named after Bharat). An apsara called Tilottama was specially created from the essence of all that is good in all the objects of the universe (til = particle, uttam = best, tilottama = she of the best of all materials) to distract two demon brothers who were causing major grief to the gods; the brothers fought over her and, in the duel, killed each other.

The gandharvas are musicians par excellence. When Arjuna, the third Pandava, went to the heavens in search of celestial weapons, the gandharvas at Indra’s court taught him singing and dancing. The gandharvas are good warriors as well. The Kuru prince and heir apparent, Chitrangad, was killed in a battle by a gandharva of the same name. Another gandharva gave an enchanted war chariot and some divine weapons to Arjuna, and on another occasion, imprisoned Duryodhana and his whole pleasure camp when the two groups entered into a dispute over the rights to a picnic spot.

Gandharva

Gandharva

Perhaps because of their somewhat frivolous nature, both apsaras and gandharvas frequently run afoul of the more staid sages and are cursed by them to be born on earth as trees, animals, or deformed beings, redeemable after thousands of years by the touch or grace of an incarnate god or a human hero.

IN MODERN TIMES

The word apsara is used in Hindi, and other similar languages descended from the Indo-European, to generally denote an exceedingly beautiful woman or a talented dancer.

Hanuman

Hanuman is one of several zoomorphic characters in Indian mythology, but is the only wholly animal figure who is revered as a god today. The mythic texts speak of him as a monkey child of the Wind God, as possessing enormous strength, keen intellect and a mastery over the Vedas and other branches of learning. He is also an unquestioning devotee of Rama, the hero of the epic Ramayana, and has the ability to take on any form he wishes.

HANUMAN IN THE RAMAYANA

The first reference to Hanuman in the epic Ramayana is casual – as a “group of monkeys” – and one has no inkling of the large role that he will go on to play in the remainder of the story. Ravana, a demon, abducted Sita, wife of the exiled prince Rama. When Ravana was carrying away Sita in his air-borne chariot, Sita saw some monkeys atop a mountain and threw down her ornaments, hoping that monkeys with ornaments would attract the attention of her husband Rama, who would surely be searching for her in the same forest. Hanuman was one of these four monkeys. This monkey group was instrumental in giving Rama key information about Sita. They helped him build a bridge across the seas, and cross over with a monkey army that successfully stormed the demon stronghold and freed Sita.

Hanuman’s role in the battle between Rama and Ravana is huge. He is the one who flies across the oceans (he is Wind’s child), locates the exact place where Sita is imprisoned and brings this information back to Rama. While within the demon fort on his quest for Sita, he sets the entire place on fire and warns Ravana about an impending attack unless Sita is returned unharmed.

FROM HIS FATHER, THE WIND GOD, HANUMAN INHERITS HIS MIGHT & SPEED. HE IS ALSO A SHAPESHIFTER WHO CAN INCREASE & DECREASE HIS BODY SIZE AT WILL.

During the Rama-Ravana battle, Hanuman not only kills several demon generals but also brings Rama’s brother back to life. How does he do that? Well, it so happens that Rama’s brother is mortally wounded by Ravana’s son, and the monkey-army-physician opines that the only things that can save the life of the younger prince are four specific herbs that grow on the Himalayan slopes. The catch? The battle is raging on in Lanka, across the southernmost tip of the country while the Himalayas are far up north, and the herbs are needed within the next few hours, before the new day dawns. Hanuman leaps up into the air, flies northwards at lightning speed, and alights atop the Himalayas.  This is where things start to become confusing: the monkey-physician had said that medicine herbs glow in their own light and that it should be easy, therefore, to spot them. What Hanuman sees, however, is an entire mountain aglow with herbs of all kinds, each emitting its own peculiar light. Being unable to identify the exact four herbs that the physician had described, Hanuman uproots the entire mountain and carries it back to the battlefield. The physician gets his herbs, the near-dead prince is brought back his life, and, so strong is the effect of the mountain teeming with a thousand fragrant herbs that other monkeys who had fallen in battle are also healed just by inhaling the medicine-scented mountain air.

Hanuman finds Sita

Hanuman finds Sita

Hanuman is described in the epic as one of extremely pleasant visage, perfect diction, elegant speech, and faultless manners. He is also described as being knowledgeable in the three Vedas. From his father, the Wind God, he inherits his might and speed. He is also a shapeshifter who can increase and decrease his body size at will.

HANUMAN IN THE MAHABHARAT

The Mahabharat is an epic about two branches of a family warring for a throne. One of the princes in the Mahabharat is also a son of the Wind God and it is to him that Hanuman’s makes his only appearance in this epic. This prince, named Bhima, was as mighty as the wind and had once wandered into a large banana grove, which he proceeded to randomly destroy. While tearing down fruit and uprooting trees, he saw an old monkey dozing by the wayside, its tail lying right across the grove path. Bhima ordered the monkey to move its tail aside; the monkey opened his eyes and said it was rather weak and if the prince could be kind enough to lift it gently aside he would be grateful. Bhima, not given to either patience or conversations with lesser beings, bent to pick the monkey up by its tail, intending to hurl it across the banana trees. However, to his surprise, try as he might, he could not move even a whisker of the tail. It transpired that the monkey was none other than Hanuman, the mightiest being on earth. “Strength should not be trifled with; neither should it be something to be vain of”, or words to similar effect, were what Hanuman told the chastened Bhima.

As a mark of affection to Bhima, Hanuman agreed to reside on the flag of Bhima’s younger brother Arjuna’s chariot. It is for this reason that Arjuna is called Kapi-dhwaj (kapi = monkey, dhwaj = flag, kapi+dhwaj = ape-bannered). During the final terrible Mahabharat war, Arjun’s war cries were amplified by the roar that would emanate from the ape emblem on his flagstaff, driving fear into the hearts of his enemies.

Rama & Hanuman

Rama & Hanuman

HANUMAN IN THE PURANAS

Hanuman is the child of the Wind God and the princess Anjana. He is referred to by his metronymic, Anjaneya, as often as his patronymic, which seems to be the norm in most of the Hindu mythological texts. The various Puranas say that Anjana was married to the monkey chief Kesari. The couple prayed to Shiva for a son, and Hanuman was born to them from an aspect of Shiva, through the agency of the Wind God. Thus, Hanuman has two patronyms: Vayu-putra (Wind’s son) as well as Kesari-nandan (Kesari’s son).

So why is he called Hanuman then? The story is this: as soon as he was born, Hanuman grew up to a considerable size, jumped about like all monkeys do, and asked his mother what he should eat. Anjana pointed to the rising sun, a sphere of red in the golden dawn, and told him that anything that looked like that (i.e. ripe fruits) was his food. Hanuman mistook the sun itself to be a ripe fruit and leapt up in the air to grab it. The king of gods, seeing a dark streak speeding across the sky towards the sun as if to swallow it whole, was alarmed and hurled his thunderbolt at the flying figure. Whereupon Hanuman roared with laughter and said, “Do you not know, King, that I am unslayable? I am born of Shiva, how can your thunderbolt do anything to me? However, just so the Worlds do not laugh at you, I allow your weapon to scratch my chin”. Or, words to that effect. Thus, the honour of the king of gods was retained, the infallible thunderbolt hit its target, the monkey child got his chin disfigured, and came to be known as Hanuman (hanu = chin; man = of, with, bearing, having; hanu+man=he of [broken] chin).

The Puranas also tell us that Hanuman was taught the Vedas and all other branches of learning by Sun God himself, Surya. He learnt his lessons by trotting alongside the Sun’s chariot as it moved across the sky.

Hanuman

Hanuman

HANUMAN IN LATER LITERATURE

During the 16th CE, a poet called Tulsidas retold the Ramayana in the vernacular Awadhi language (rather than the academic Sanskrit) and also composed several hymns to the gods. One such hymn, the Hanuman Chalisa, continues to be recited today by thousands of people. This canticle of about 40 verses celebrates all of the qualities that Hanuman came to signify over the centuries: strength, devotion, celibacy, and righteousness. Hanuman became a god.  In an extract from the Hanuman Chalisa,

 
भूत पिशाच निकट नहिं आवै।
महाबीर जब नाम सुनावै॥
नासै रोग हरै सब पीरा।
जपत निरंतर हनुमत बीरा॥
Demons and ghosts do not come near
If they hear the mighty one’s name
Diseases die, sorrows disappear
If one constantly chants Hanuman’s name

HANUMAN IN THE 21ST CENTURY

Hanuman is worshipped as a god in several parts of India today. It is almost de rigueur to find a small shrine to him in police stations and wrestling clubs across the country, especially in the north. Outside of India, Hanuman is known in countries which were influenced by the Hindu culture such as Indonesia, Thailand, and Malaysia.

Hanuman is a recurring figure in the panels and motifs of the Ramayana that adorn the temples that were built over the centuries in India. He is most often depicted with his favourite weapon, the mace. He is also often depicted as flying across the skies, one hand holding aloft the mountain of herbs and the other a mace.

Magadha Kingdom

Magadha was an ancient kingdom located on the Indo-Gangetic plains in eastern India and spread over what is today the modern state of Bihar. At the height of its power, it claimed suzerainty over the entire eastern part of the country (roughly the area of England) and ruled from its capital at Pataliputra (modern Patna, Bihar). In 326 BCE, when Alexander the Great was camped at the river Beas on the westernmost part on India, his army mutinied; they refused to march further east. They had heard about the great Magadha kingdom and were unnerved by stories of its might. Unwillingly, Alexander turned back (and was to die en route). But this was not the first time that the might of Magadha had forced kings westwards. One of the earliest references to Magadha is in the epic Mahabharata, where we see the entire Yadava clan abandoning their homeland on the Gangetic plains to  migrate south-westwards towards the desert-ocean land to avoid constant battles with their eastern neighbour, Magadha.

ANCIENT MAGADHA, & JARASANDHA

The Magadha kingdom did not seem to have been liked by the vedic people. In the Atharva Veda, a charm against virulent fever speaks somewhat sarcastically of banishing the fever to the people of Magadha, inter alia.

 गंधारिभ्यो मूजवद्भ्यो अड़ेभ्यो मगधेभ्यः ॥ प्रैष्यन्जनमिव शेवधि तक्मानं परि दध्मसि ॥

Over to the Gandharis, the Magavants, the Angas, and the Magadhas, do we deliver the fever, like a servant, like a treasure. [Atharva Veda, V.22.14]

THE CAPITAL OF MAGADHA WAS GIRIVRAJ WHICH WAS SORROUNDED BY RINGS OF MOUNTAINS & WAS, THEREFORE, DIFFICULT TO LAY SIEGE TO.

In the Mahabharata, Magadha is the mightiest kingdom in the country, stronger even than the Kurus (of whom the epic is all about). Magadha controlled the entire eastern part of the country through alliances with smaller vassal states. It was constantly at war with its western neighbours, the Yadavas of Mathura, who ultimately migrated far west to the sea coast near the Rann of Kutchh (modern Gujarat) because they could no longer afford the resources needed to protect their kingdom from the regular onslaughts of the Magadha king, Jarasandha. This flight meant that Magadha’s borders extended right upto the Kuru-Panchal kingdoms, where lived the Pandavas and the Kauravas. Jarasandha had powerful allies around his main kingdom: to the southwest was the vassal state of Chedi (to the south of which was another ally, Vidarbh), to the east were the allies of Anga and Vanga, and further east was the friendly country of Pragjyotishpur (modern Assam), ruled by a demon whose borders extended right up to China. This entire stretch of land looked to Jarasandh as their overlord.

The capital of Magadha was Girivraj (modern Rajgir, Bihar). This city was sorrounded by rings of mountains and was, therefore, difficult to lay siege to. Jarasandh had imprisoned 99 minor kings, and had intended to offer a big human sacrifice after the 100th king was captured but before he could do so, he was defeated in a wrestling match by the Pandava Bheem, and ripped apart into two. Jarasandh’s son was placed on the throne but was later to die fighting for the Pandavas in the Kurukshetra war.

The Kurukshetra War

The Kurukshetra War

After the Kurukshetra war, the power of Magadha seems to have diminished somewhat because there are references to it being annexed by a south-western neighbour, Avanti. It continued to be an important kingdom, however, and was counted among the 16 principal states of ancient India.

MAGADHA AT THE TIME OF THE BUDDHA

At around the time that Gautama Siddhartha became the Buddha, Magadha was a flourishing kingdom under its king Bimbisara. Under Bimbisara, Magadha annexed the neighbouring eastern kingdoms, and made marriage aliances with the ones in the west and north. He was friends with another neighbour, Avanti, to whose king he sent his own physician when the Avanti king was ill. The country was ruled by the king with help from three classes of officials: the executive, the judiciary, and the military. It was during Bimbisara’s rule that Gautama Siddhartha, the heir-prince of a country north of Magadha, came there wandering, seeking the eternal truth, and attained enlightenment at Bodh Gaya to become the Buddha.

GAUTAM SIDDHARTH,  CROWN PRINCE OF A COUNTRY NORTH OF MAGADHA, WANDERED ALL OVER MAGADHA AND VATSA, SEEKING THE ETERNAL TRUTH. IT WAS FINALLY AT BODH GAYA IN MAGADHA THAT HE ATTAINED ENLIGHTENMENT TO BECOME THE BUDDHA.

Bimbisara was succeeded by his son Ajatashatru, who shifted the capital of Magadha from Girivraj to Pataliputra (modern Patna, Bihar). Ever since, Pataliputra has remained the capital of that province, down to this day. Ajatashatru also expanded his father’s territories considerably; he annexed Kosala, the Lichchhavi republic, Kashi, and Avanti. Some of these kingdoms were related to him by blood but Ajatashatru is generally depicted as a cruel person not given to family niceties (he had deposed and imprisoned his father to ascend the throne). The battle with the Lichchhavi republic was a long-drawn out affair, and we have descriptions of some of the military innovations that Ajatashatru implemented: one was a catapult that could throw heavy stones a great distance (mahashilakantaka), and another was a self-propelling, covered chariot that had rotating spears and blades attached to its wheels (rathamushal). An interesting fallout of the Magadha-Lichchhavi war was the affair of Ajatashatru with the Lichchavi state courtesan Amrapali. The destruction of the Lichchhavi lands by Magadha so pained Amrapali that she became a Buddhist nun; her son by Ajatashatru went on to become a Buddhist monk.

Ajatashatru was against the Buddha to begin with but became a friend later. When the Buddha died and his remains were distributed among his disciples, a major share fell to Ajatashatru who was the most powerful king of that period. He enshrined the relics inside a stupa at Girivraj. Later, he hosted the first ever council of Buddhist monks, when about 500 of them congregated at the Magadha capital for the Great Council.

Remains of Ajatashatru's stupa

Remains of Ajatashatru’s stupa

There are conflicting reports about the successors of Ajatashatru but about 50 years after his death, the people of Magadha deposed the hereditory king and elected a minister named Shishunag to the throne. Shishunaga was succeeded by his son, during whose reign the Second Buddhist Council was held in Magadha. This king was killed in a palace conspiracy and was succeeded by Mahapadma Nanda.

THE NANDAS

The origins of the Nandas is obscure; however, all of the texts of that period agree that Mahapadma Nanda, the kingslayer, was of low birth and a paramour to one of the queens. He reconquered all of the lands that Magadha had lost under Ajatashatru’s successors, and extended the kingdom to right inside the Deccan plateau of India. By the time that Alexander had invaded the western frontiers of India, the Nanda dyansty had expanded Magadha to the Gangetic seacoast in the east and to the Punjab in the west. Thus, if Alexander were to march any further east, he would have had have to reckon with a mighty kingdom having the full resources of the entire northern India under its control; Magadha’s army consisted of 20,000 cavalry, 200,000 infantry, 2,000 chariots, and 3,000 elephants. Alexander’s army mutinied; they refused to fight an army that formidable.

Alexander the Great, Ptolemaic Coin of Alexandria

Alexander the Great, Ptolemaic Coin of Alexandria

THE FALL OF MAGADHA

Despite the extreme wealth and the military might of Magadha, its king was hugely unpopular on account of his cruelty  and the high rates of taxation he imposed on the populace.  The Buddhist texts of the period say that the king was given to digging up the riverbed of the Ganges and burying his gold there. So enduring were stories of the fabulous wealth of the Nandas that Hieun Tsang, the Chinese pilgrim touring the country in the 7th century CE, almost 600 years later, makes a reference to it.

After Alexander left for Greece, the departure created a power vaccuum in western India. Chandragupta Maurya stepped into this vaccuum, subjugated these kingdoms, and then entered Pataliputra and killed the Nanda king. The details of this overthrow are unclear but it is assumed that Chandragupta Maurya had the support of the populace and the palace. The mighty Magadha kingdom had given way to a kingdom even more powerful: the Mauryan Empire.

Mahabharata : Definition

The Mahabharata is an ancient Indian epic where the main story revolves around two branches of a family – the Pandavas and Kauravas – who, in the Kurukshetra War, battle for the throne of Hastinapura. Interwoven into this narrative are several smaller stories about people dead or living, and philosophical discourses. Krishna-Dwaipayan Vyasa, himself a character in the epic, composed it; as, according to tradition, he dictated the verses and Ganesha wrote them down. At 100,000 verses, it is the longest epic poem ever written, generally thought to have been composed in the 4th century BCE or earlier. The events in the epic play out in the Indian subcontinent and surrounding areas. It was first narrated by a student of Vyasa at a snake-sacrifice of the great-grandson of one of the major characters of the story. Including within it the Bhagavad Gita, the Mahabharata is one of the most important texts of ancient Indian, indeed world, literature.

THE PRELUDE

Shantanu, the king of Hastinapur, was married to Ganga (personification of the Ganges) with whom he had a son called Devavrat. Several years later, when Devavrat had grown up to be an accomplished prince, Shantanu fell in love with Satyavati. Her father refused to let her marry the king unless the king promised that Satyavati’s son and descendants would inherit the throne. Unwilling to deny Devavrat his rights, Shantanu declined to do so but the prince, on coming to know of the matter, rode over to Satyavati’s house, vowed to renounce the throne and to remain celibate throughout his life. The prince then took Satyavati home to the palace so that the king, his father, could marry her. On account of the terrible vow that he’d taken that day, Devavrat came to be known as Bheeshm. Shantanu was so pleased with his son that he granted to Devavrat the boon of choosing the time of his own death.

In time, Shantanu and Satyavati had two sons. Soon thereafter, Shantanu died. Satyavati’s sons still being minors, the affairs of the kingdom were managed by Bheeshm and Satyavati. By the time these sons reached adulthood, the elder one had died in a skirmish with some gandharvas (heavenly beings) so the younger son, Vichitravirya, was enthroned. Bheeshm then abducted the three princesses of a neighbouring kingdom and brought them over to Hastinapur to be wedded to Vichitravirya. The eldest of these princesses declared that she was in love with someone else, so she was let go; the two other princesses were married to Vichitravirya who died soon afterwards, childless.

DHRITARASHTRA WAS THE STRONGEST OF ALL PRINCES IN THE COUNTRY, PANDU WAS SKILLED IN WARFARE & ARCHERY, & VIDUR KNEW ALL THE BRANCHES OF LEARNING, POLITICS, & STATESMANSHIP.

DHRITARASHTRA, PANDU & VIDUR

So that the family line did not die out, Satyavati summoned her son Vyasa to impregnate the two queens. Vyasa had been born to Satyavati of a great sage named Parashar before her marriage to Shantanu. According to the laws of the day, a child born to an unwed mother was taken to be a step-child of the mother’s husband; by that token, Vyasa could be considered Shantanu’s son and could be used to perpetuate the Kuru clan that ruled Hastinapur. Thus, by the Niyog custom, the two queens each had a son of Vyasa: to the elder queen was born a blind son called Dhritarashtra, and to the younger was born an otherwise healthy but extremely pale son called Pandu. To a maid of these queens was born a son of Vyasa called Vidur. Bheeshm brought up these three boys with great care. Dhritarashtra grew up to be the strongest of all princes in the country, Pandu was extremely skilled in warfare and archery, and Vidur knew all the branches of learning, politics, and statesmanship.

With the boys grown, it was now time to fill up the empty throne of Hastinapur. Dhritarashtra, the eldest, was bypassed because the laws barred a disabled person from being king. Pandu, instead, was crowned. Bheeshm negotiated Dhritarashtra’s marriage with Gandhari, and Pandu’s with Kunti and Madri. Pandu expanded the kingdom by conquering the sorrounding areas, and brought in considerable war booty. With things running smoothly in the country, and with its coffers full, Pandu asked his elder brother to look after the state affairs, and retired to the forests with his two wives for some time off.

KAURAVAS & PANDAVAS

A few years later, Kunti returned to Hastinapur. With her were five little boys, and the bodies of Pandu and Madri.  The five boys were the sons of Pandu, born to his two wives through the Niyog custom from gods: the eldest was born of Dharma, the second of Vayu, the third of Indra, and the youngest – twins – of the Ashvins. In the meanwhile, Dhritarashtra and Gandhari too had had children of their own: 100 sons and one daughter. The Kuru elders performed the last rites for Pandu and Madri, and Kunti and the children were welcomed into the palace.

Pandavas

Pandavas

All of the 105 princes were subsequently entrusted to the care of a teacher: Kripa at first and, additionally, Drona later. Drona’s school at Hastinapur attracted several other boys; Karna, of the Suta clan was one such boy. It was here that hostilities quickly developed between the sons of Dhritarashtra (collectively called the Kauravas, patronymic of their ancestor Kuru) and the sons of Pandu (collectively called the Pandavas, patronymic of their father).

Duryodhana, the eldest Kaurava, tried – and failed – to poison Bheem, the second Pandava. Karna, because of his rivalry in archery with the third Pandava, Arjuna, allied himself with Duryodhan. In time, the princes learnt all they could from their teachers, and the Kuru elders decided to hold a public skills exhibition of the princes. It was during this exhibition that the citizens became plainly aware of the hostilities between the two branches of the royal family: Duryodhan and Bheem had a mace fight that had to be stopped before things turned ugly, Karna – uninvited as he was not a Kuru prince – challenged Arjuna, was insulted on account of his non-royal birth, and was crowned king of a vassal state on the spot by Duryodhan. It was also around this time that questions began to be raised about Dhritarashtra occupying the throne, since he was supposed to be holding it only in trust for Pandu, the crowned king. To keep peace in the realm, Dhritarashtra declared the eldest Pandava, Yudhishthir, as the crown prince and heir apparent.

The Kuru Family Tree

THE FIRST EXILE

Yudhishthir’s being the crown prince and his rising popularity with the citizens was extremely distasteful to Duryodhan, who saw himself as the rightful heir since his father was the de facto king. He plotted to get rid of the Pandavas. This he did by getting his father to send the Pandavas and Kunti off to a nearby town on the pretext of a fair that was held there. The palace in which the Pandavas were to stay in that town was built by an agent of Duryodhan; the palace was made entirely of inflammable materials since the plan was to burn down the palace – together with the Pandavas and Kunti – once they’d settled in. The Pandavas, however, were alerted to this fact by their other uncle, Vidur, and had a counter plan ready; they dug an escape tunnel underneath their chambers. One night, the Pandavas gave out a huge feast which all of the townsfolk came to. At that feast, a forest woman and her five sons found themselves so well-fed and well-drunk that they could no longer walk straight; they passed out on the floor of the hall. That very night, the Pandavas themselves set fire to the palace and escaped through the tunnel. When the flames had died down, the townsfolk discovered the bones of the forest woman and her boys, and mistook them for Kunti and the Pandavas. Duryodhan thought his plan had succeeded and that the world was free of the Pandavas.

ARJUNA & DRAUPADI

Meanwhile, the Pandavas and Kunti went into hiding, moving from one place to another and passing themselves off as a poor brahmin family. They would seek shelter with some villager for a few weeks, the princes would go out daily to beg for food, return in the evenings and hand over the day’s earnings to Kunti who would divide the food into two: one half was for the strongman Bheem and the other half was shared by the others. During these wanderings, Bheem killed two demons, married a demoness, and had a demon child called Ghatotkach. They then heard about a swayamvar (a ceremony to choose a suitor) being organised for the princess of Panchal, and went at Panchal to see the festivities. According to their practice, they left their mother home and set out for alms: they reached the swayamvar hall where the king was giving away things most lavishly to alms seekers. The brothers sat themselves down in the hall to watch the fun: the princess Draupadi, born of fire, was famed for her beauty and every prince from every country for miles around had come to the swayamvar, hoping to win her hand. The conditions of the swayamvar were difficult: a long pole on the ground had a circular contraption spinning at its top. On this moving disc was attached a fish. At the bottom of the pole was a shallow urn of water. A person had to look down into this water-mirror, use the bow and five arrows that were provided, and pierce the fish spinning on top. Five attempts were allowed. It was evident that only an extremely skilled archer, such as the now-presumed-dead Arjuna, could pass the test.

Arjuna at the Draupadi Swayamvar

One by one, the kings and princes tried to shoot the fish, and failed. Some could not even lift the bow; some could not string it. The Kauravas and Karna were also present. Karna picked up the bow and strung it in a moment, but was prevented from taking aim when Draupadi declared she would not marry anyone from the Suta clan. After every one of the royals had failed, Arjuna, the third Pandava, stepped up to the pole, picked up the bow, strung it, affixed all of the five arrows to it, looked down into the water, aimed, shot, and pierced the fish’s eye with all of the five arrows in a single attempt. Arjuna had won Draupadi’s hand.

The Pandava brothers, still in the guise of poor brahmins, took Draupadi back to the hut they were staying at and shouted for Kunti, “Ma, Ma, come and see what we’ve brought back today.” Kunti, saying, “Whatever it is, share it among yourselves”, came out of the hut, saw that it wasn’t alms but the most beautiful woman she had ever set her eyes on, and stood stock still as the import of her words sank in on everybody present.

Meanwhile, Draupadi’s twin Dhrishtadyumna, unhappy that his royal sister should be married off to a poor commoner, had secretly followed the Pandavas back to their hut. Also following them secretly was a dark prince and his fair brother – Krishna and Balaram of the Yadava clan – who had suspected that the unknown archer could be none other than Arjuna, who had been presumed dead at the palace-burning incident several months ago. These princes were related to the Pandavas – their father was Kunti’s brother – but they had never met before. By design or happenstance, Vyasa also arrived at the scene at this point and the Pandava hut was alive for a while with happy cries of meetings and reunions. To keep Kunti’s words, it was decided that Draupadi would be the common wife of all of the five Pandavas. Her brother, Dhrishtadyumna, and her father, the king Drupad, were reluctant with this unusual arrangement but were talked around to it by Vyasa and Yudhishthir.

Places in the Mahabharata

INDRAPRASTHA & THE DICE GAME

After the wedding ceremonies at Panchal were over, the Hastinapur palace invited the Pandavas and their bride back. Dhritarashtra made a great show of happiness on discovering that the Pandavas were alive after all, and he partitioned the kingdom, giving them a huge tract of barren land to settle in and rule over. The Pandavas transformed this land into a paradise. Yudhishthir was crowned there, and he performed a sacrifice that involved all of the kings of the land to accept – either voluntarily or by force – his suzerainty. The new kingdom, Indraprastha, prospered.

Meanwhile, the Pandavas had entered into an agreement among themselves regarding Draupadi: she was to be wife of each Pandava, by turn, for a year. If any Pandava was to enter the room where she was present with her husband-of-that-year, that Pandava was to be exiled for 12 years. It so happened that once Draupadi and Yudhishthir, her husband of that year, were present in the armoury when Arjuna entered it to take his bow and arrows. Consequently, he went off in exile during which he toured the entire country, down to its southernmost tip, and married three princesses he met along the way.

The prosperity of Indraprastha and the power of the Pandavas was not something that Duryodhan liked. He invited Yudhisthir to a dice game and got his uncle, Shakuni, to play on his (Duryodhan’s) behalf. Shakuni was an accomplished player; Yudhishthir staked – and lost – step by step his entire wealth, his kingdom, his brothers, himself, and Draupadi. Draupadi was dragged into the dice hall and insulted. There was an attempt to disrobe her, and Bheem lost his temper and vowed to kill each and every one of the Kauravas. Things came to such a boil that Dhritarashtra intervened unwillingly, gave the kingdom and their freedom back to the Pandavas and Draupadi, and set them off back to Indraprastha. This angered Duryodhan, who talked his father around, and invited Yudhishthir to another dice game. This time, the condition was that the loser would go on a 12-year exile followed by a year of life incognito. If they were to be discovered during this incognito period, the loser would have to repeat the 12+1 cycle. The dice game was played. Yudhishthir lost again.

Draupadi Humiliated, Mahabharata

THE SECOND EXILE

For this exile, the Pandavas left their ageing mother Kunti behind at Hastinapur, in Vidur’s place. They lived in forests, hunted game, and visited holy spots. At around this time, Yudhishthir asked Arjuna to go to the heavens in quest of celestial weapons because, by now, it was apparent that their kingdom would not be returned to them peacefully after the exile and that they would have to fight for it. Arjuna did so, and not only did he learn the techniques of several divine weapons from the gods, he also learnt how to sing and dance from the gandharvas.

After 12 years, the Pandavas went incognito for a year. During this one-year period, they lived in the Virat kingdom. Yudhishthir took up employment as a king’s counsellor, Bheem worked in the royal kitchens, Arjuna turned himself into a eunuch and taught the palace maidens how to sing and dance, the twins worked at the royal stables, and Draupadi became a handmaiden to the queen. At the end of the incognito period – during which they were not discovered despite Duryodhan’s best efforts – the Pandavas revealed themselves. The Virat king was overwhelmed; he offered his daughter in marriage to Arjuna but he declined since he had been her dance teacher the past year and students were akin to children. The princess was married, instead, to Arjuna’s son Abhimanyu.

At this wedding ceremony, a large number of Pandava allies gathered to draw out a war strategy. Meanwhile, emissaries had been sent to Hastinapur to demand Indraprastha back but the missions had failed. Krishna himself went on a peace mission and failed. Duryodhan refused to give away as much land as was covered by the point of a needle, let alone the five villages proposed by the peace missions. The Kauravas also gathered their allies around them, and even broke away a key Pandava ally – the maternal uncle of the Pandava twins – by trickery. War became inevitable.

Arjuna During the Battle of Kurukshetra

THE KURUKSHETRA WAR & AFTERMATH

Just before the war bugle was sounded, Arjuna saw arrayed before him his relatives: his great-grandfather Bheeshm who had practically brought him up, his teachers Kripa and Drona, his brothers the Kauravas, and, for a moment, his resolution wavered. Krishna, the warrior par excellence, had given up arms for this war and had elected to be Arjuna’s charioteer. To him Arjuna said, “Take me back, Krishna. I can’t kill these people. They’re my father, my brothers, my teachers, my uncles, my sons. What good is a kingdom that’s gained at the cost of their lives?” Then followed a philosophical discourse that has today become a separate book on its own – the Bhagavad Gita. Krishna explained the impermanence of life to Arjuna, and the importance of doing one’s duty and of sticking to the right path. Arjuna picked up his bow again.

सुखदुखे समे कृत्वा लाभालाभौ जयाजयौ। ततो युद्धाय युज्यस्व नैवं पापमवाप्स्यप्ति।। If you proceed to war treating equally joy and sorrow, gain and loss, victory and defeat, you do not sin. [2.38]
कर्मण्येवाधिकारस्ते मा फलेषु कदाचन । मा कर्मफलहेतुर्भूर्मा ते सङ्गोऽस्त्वकर्मणि ॥ You have a right only to work; you have no claim to the fruits thereof. Do not let an expected result dictate your actions; do not sit idle either. [2.47]

The battle raged for 18 days. The army totalled 18 akshauhinis, 7 on the Panadava side and 11 on the Kaurava (1 akshauhini = 21,870 chariots + 21,870 elephants + 65,610 horses + 109,350 soldiers on foot). Casualties on both sides were high. When it all ended, the Pandavas had won the war but lost almost everyone they held dear. Duryodhan and all of the Kauravas had died, as had all of the menfolk of Draupadi’s family, including all of her sons by the Pandavas. The now-dead Karna was revealed to be a son of Kunti’s from before her marriage to Pandu, and thus, the eldest Pandava and the rightful heir to the throne. The grand old man, Bheeshm, lay dying; their teacher Drona was dead as were several kinsfolk related to them either by blood or by marriage. In about 18 days, the entire country lost almost three generations of its men. It was a war not seen on a scale before, it was the Great Indian war, the Maha-bharat.

After the war, Yudhishthir became king of Hastinapur and Indraprastha. The Pandavas ruled for 36 years, after which they abdicated in favour of Abhimanyu’s son, Parikshit. The Pandavas and Draupadi proceeded on foot to the Himalayas, intending to live out their last days climbing the slopes heavenwards. One by one, they fell on this last journey and their spirits ascended to the heavens. Years later, Parikshit’s son succeeded his father as king. He held a big sacrifice, at which this entire story was recited for the first time by a disciple of Vyasa called Vaishampayan.

LEGACY

Since that time, this story has been retold countless times, expanded upon, and retold again. The Mahabharata remains popular to this day in India. It has been adapted and recast in contemporary mode in several films and plays. Children continue to be named after the characters in the epic. The Bhagvad Gita is one of the holiest of Hindu scriptures. Beyond India, the Mahabharata story is popular in south-east Asia in cultures that were influenced by Hinduism such as Indonesia and Malaysia.

Bhagavad Gita :Definition

The Bhagavad Gita is an ancient Indian text that became an important work of Hindu tradition in terms of both literature and philosophy. The earliest translations of this work from Sanskrit into English were made around 1795 CE by Sir Charles Wilkins. The name Bhagavad Gita means “the song of the Lord”. It is composed as a poem and it contains many key topics related to the Indian intellectual and spiritual tradition. Although it is normally edited as an independent text, the Bhagavad Gita became a section of a massive Indian epic named “The Mahabharata”, the longest Indian epic. There is a part in the middle of this long text, consisting of 18 brief chapters and about 700 verses: this is the section known as the Bhagavad Gita. It is also referred to as the Gita, for short.

AUTHORSHIP & ORIGIN

The Bhagavad Gita was written at some point between 400 BCE and 200 CE. Like the Vedas and the Upanishads, the authorship of the Bhagavad Gita is unclear. However, the credit for this text is traditionally given to a man named Vyasa, who is more of a legend than an actual historical figure; because of this, Vyasa has been compared to Homer, the great figure of ancient Greek epic poetry.

It has been suggested that the Bhagavad Gita was originally an independent text as, except for the first chapter, the Bhagavad Gita does not develop the action of the Mahabharata. Furthermore, the Bhagavad Gita is at odds with the general style and content of the Mahabharata. Once the Gita is over, the narration of the Mahabharata resumes.

The Gita was written during a time of important social change in India, with kingdoms getting larger, increasing urbanization, more trade activity, and social conflict similar to what was happening when Jainism and Buddhism developed. This ancient Indian text is about the search for serenity, calmness, and permanence in a world of rapid change and how to integrate spiritual values into ordinary life.

THEME, PLOT, & SETTING

Around the time when the Gita was written, asceticism was seen in India as the ideal spiritual life. Ascetics from different sects along with Jains and Buddhists all agreed that leaving everything behind (family, possessions, occupations, etc.) was the best way to live in a meaningful way.

YOU WERE NEVER BORN; YOU WILL NEVER DIE. YOU HAVE NEVER CHANGED; YOU CAN NEVER CHANGE. BHAGAVAD GITA

The Bhagavad Gita revolves around the following questions: How can someone live a life spiritually meaningful without withdrawing from society? What can someone who does not want to give up family and social obligations do to live the right way? The Gita challenges the general consensus that only ascetics and monks can live a perfect spiritual life through renunciation and emphasises the value of an active spiritual life.

The plot of the Gita is based on two sets of cousins competing for the throne: The Pandavas and the Kauravas. Diplomacy has failed, so these two clans’ armies meet on a battlefield in order to settle the conflict and decide which side will gain the throne. This is a major battle and it takes place in Kurukshetra, “the field of the Kurus”, in the modern state of Haryana in India.

Arjuna, the great archer and leader of the Pandavas, is a member of the Kshatriyas caste (the warrior rulers caste). He looks out towards his opponents and recognizes friends, relatives, former teachers, and finally reasons that controlling the kingdom is not worth the blood of all his loved ones. Emotionally overwhelmed, Arjuna drops down, casting aside his bow and arrows and decides to quit. He prefers to withdraw from battle; he prefers inaction instead of being responsible for the death of the people he loves.

Pandavas

Pandavas

His chariot driver is the god Vishnu, who has taken the form of Krishna. Krishna sees Arjuna quitting and begins to persuade Arjuna that he should stick to his duty as a warrior and engage the enemy. The Bhagavad Gita is presented as a conversation between Arjuna and Krishna, a man and a god, a seeker and a knower.

THE MESSAGE OF THE BHAGAVAD GITA

Arjuna is worried about entering the battle and destroying his own family, so Krishna begins by explaining five reasons why Arjuna should not be troubled by this. Essentially Krishna shows Arjuna why he will not get bad karma from taking part in the war.

The first reason Krishna mentions is that because atman (the self) is eternal, it is a mistake to think that one can actually kill someone. What actually happens is that people are sent to the next stage of reincarnation.

[Krishna speaking] One believes he is the slayer, another believes he is the slain. Both are ignorant; there is neither slayer nor slain. You were never born; you will never die. You have never changed; you can never change. Unborn, eternal, immutable, immemorial, you do not die when the body dies. (Bhagavad Gita 2:19-20)

Another reason why Arjuna should fight is because of honour and duty, also referred to as dharma or cast duty. Arjuna is a member of the warrior class; the battle is the very reason of his existence. It is not sinful to fulfil your duty in life.

The third reason Krishna gives is that inaction is impossible. Withdrawing from battle is in itself a conscious decision; not choosing is still a choice. This is in a way a criticism of some world-views, such as asceticism, which claim that leaving everything behind is inaction: Withdrawing from society is always a deliberate act.

Another reason given by Krishna is that the source of evil is not in actions, but in passion and desires, the intentions behind the actions. This brings the dialogue to the last reason.

Krishna manifesting his full glory to Arjuna

Krishna manifesting his full glory to Arjuna

The fifth and last reason is that there are ways to act where we can do what we have to do without getting bad karma. In the Bhagavad Gita, Krishna explains three ways.

The first way is Jnana yoga (the way of knowledge). This idea is based on the Upanishads and holds that life and death are not real. Selfhood is nothing but an illusion. All we see are manifestations of the oneness. Once we realize that the oneness is behind all things, we can escape the bad karma from acting.

[Krishna speaking] I am ever present to those who have realized me in every creature. Seeing all life as my manifestation, they are never separated from me. (Bhagavad Gita 6:30)

The second way is Bhakti yoga (the way of devotion). This in an idea developed in great detail in Hinduism and holds that our actions can be dedicated to Krishna by surrendering our will to him, and he will take upon himself any bad karma.

The third way is Karma yoga (“the way of action” or “the way of works”). The idea behind Karma yoga is acting without attachment; in other words, to act without being so concerned about the outcome of our actions. According to this view, if we act in such a way as not to get attached to the fruits of our actions, we can be more effective. Sometimes emotions like fear, embarrassment, or anxiety can interfere in the outcome of what we do.

[Krishna speaking] Neither agitated by grief nor hankering after pleasure, they live free from lust and fear and anger. Established in meditation, they are truly wise. Fettered no more by selfish attachments, they are neither elated by good fortune nor depressed by bad. Such are the seers.” (Bhagavad Gita 2:56-57)

[Krishna speaking] Thinking of objects, attachment to them is formed in a man. From attachment longing, and from longing anger grows. From anger comes delusion, and from delusion loss of memory. From loss of memory comes the ruin of understanding, and from the ruin of understanding he perishes. (Bhagavad Gita 2:62-63)

Each of these three ways to act without getting bad karma is suitable for different people or castes. Priests would follow the way of knowledge; peasants, merchants and commoners might be inclined to the way of devotion; warriors would identify themselves with the way of action. Finally, Arjuna decides to obey Krishna by engaging in the battle and in the end the Pandavas regain control of the kingdom.

Krishna

Krishna

THE INFLUENCE OF THE BHAGAVAD GITA

No other Indian text has attracted more attention from foreigners than the Bhagavad Gita. Important figures such as Mahatma Gandhi held the Gita as their main reference book.

The physicist Robert Oppenheimer watched the massive explosion and blinding flash of the mushroom cloud of the first atomic bomb test in New Mexico. Oppenheimer then claimed that when he saw that, two verses from the Gita came to his mind:

If a thousand suns were to raise in the heavens at the same time, the blaze of their light would resemble the splendor of that supreme spirit. (Bhagavad Gita 11:12)

I am time, the destroyer of all; I have come to consume the world […]. (Bhagavad Gita 11:32)

This ancient book which contains a message that could be considered either distressing or inspiring still addresses some of the concerns we have today, and its message has spread all over Asia and across the globe.

Hinduism : Definition

Unlike other religious traditions, Hinduism does not originate in a single founder, a single book or a single point in time. It contains many different beliefs, philosophies and viewpoints, not always consistent with each other. These apparent contradictions strike only those who are not familiar with this tradition: the Hindu insight claims that the Oneness expresses itself in many different forms.

Hinduism is often labelled as a religion, but it is actually more than that: it is a vast and complex socio-religious body which, in a way, reflects the complexity of Indian society. A rich geography, many languages and dialects, lots of different creeds, racial diversity, all these elements have shaped Hinduism and made it so heterogenic. The lack of unifying overall religious authority and the total absence of a book claiming supreme truth and dogmas have contributed to the diversity of Hinduism as well. It is fair to mention that even the texts we find in Hinduism that claim some sort of divine inspiration do not declare their view to be better than any other and they all exist together in a tolerant fashion. The many manifestations of Hinduism go from highly intellectual philosophies concerning numerous and puzzling metaphysical concerns, many rituals, mental and physical exercises such as Yoga to simple, almost childlike, tales and legends.

THE FOUNDATIONS OF HINDUISM CAN BE FOUND IN THE TEACHINGS OF ANONYMOUS ANCIENT SAGES OR RISHIS.

This tradition has come down to us from prehistoric times. The foundations of Hinduism can be found in the teachings of anonymous ancient sages or rishis, which were originally transmitted orally. We know very little about Hinduim beyond what can be learned from the Vedas, a collection of hymns and other ritual texts composed in different periods. These texts contain a lot of material including the teachings of the early sages. The oldest evidence of religious practices in India date back approximately to 5500 BCE. It is a mistake to reduce all early Hinduism to Vedic religion: there were many other non-Vedic religious traditions in early Hinduism which have left no early texts and that can be known to some extent by archaeological evidence.

Just like Zoroastrianism and Judaism (the other two major world religions also coming to us from prehistoric times), Hinduism has received numerous shocks that threatened its foundations and it has resiliently survived all of them. Judaism and Zoroastrianism also survived the many impacts they received, but Judaism failed to absorb Christianity, its all-conquering offspring, which after just a couple of centuries clearly overshadowed it, and there are only around 200,000 Zoroastrian believers left today. The basis of Hinduism has been hit, sometimes even smashed, by many sects, movements and systems of thought: in the worst case scenarios it receded for a while, only to return more powerful than before. Movements challenging the authority of the priestly orthodoxy, irreligious schools such as the Charvaka, atheist traditions like Jainism, the Buddhist agnostic approach, nihilists and skeptics denouncing the cunning behind the sacrificial fees, all of these beliefs weakened Hinduism for some time and were eventually absorbed, recycled and merged into the enormous body of this old Indic faith.

DARSÁN: THE EMPHASIS OF THE VISUAL EXPERIENCE

We read in the Brahmanas, a group of sacred priestly texts attached to the Vedas:

The eye is the truth. If two persons come disputing with each other […] we should believe him who said ‘I have seen it’, not him who has said ‘I have heard it.’

Hinduism attaches a very special value to the the darsán (a sanskrit word meaning sight), of gurus, leaders, saintly persons and even holy places and holy images. According to the Hindus, darsán is a two-way flow of vision. While the devotee sees the god, so too the god sees the devotee, and the two can make contact through their eyes. When the images of the gods are made, its eyes are the last part to be completed. It is not until the image is consecrated that its eyes are finally opened with either the touch of a paintbrush or using a golden needle. Popular gods like Shiva and Ganesha have a third eye located in their forehead. The god Brahma, the Thousand-Eyes, often has four heads and looks in all directions at once. This emphasis on the vision and the image dominates the Hindu’s relation to the gods, appearing to be just the opposite of many other religions.

Ganesha

MANY IS BETTER THAN ONE

Abrahamanic religions are dominated by the notion that One is better than many: One God, One Book, One Son, One Church, One Nation of God. In Hinduism, the more the better: many gods, many books, many sages, many insights.

In this ever-growing community of endless gods and goddesses, the roles of the gods and even their hierarchy are somehow diffuse. Some gods get more attention than others and different accounts suggest different hierarchies. Olympian gods, who had a clear hierarchy, may look greedy and envious compared with the tolerant gods of Hinduism.

Agni, Indra, Shiva, Brahma, Vishnu and Ganesha are just a few examples of very important Hindu gods that were regarded at different times and by different sects as the most important gods. Shiva, Vishnu and Brahma were part of a holy Hindu trinity (trimurti). Shiva is sometimes associated with the destruction process and Vishnu as the creator who takes the remains destroyed by Shiva in order to regenerate what has been destroyed. For the Ganapatya Hindu sect, Ganesha is the most important deity. Ganesha is highly recognizable with his elephant head and human body, representing the soul (atman) and the physical (maya) respectively. He is also the patron of writers, travellers, students, commerce, and new projects (for which he removes obstacles from one’s path) and is rather fond of sweets, to the slight detriment of his figure.

Krishna manifesting his full glory to Arjuna

Krishna manifesting his full glory to Arjuna

THE RIDDLE OF CREATION

Trying to answer the big questions of life, Hinduism offers several different accounts for the origin of the universe. Here we also see traces of the complexity of Hinduism: the question has been approached in so many different ways.

One account says the universe came into existence as a result of the sacrifice of a primeval being, Purusha, who existed even before time. The gods appear to have been his children. Purusha is dismembered by the gods. Purusha’s mind became the Moon, his eyes the Sun, the Sky came from his head, and the Earth came from his feet.

There is a famous creation quote in the Rig-Veda which suggests a certain skepticism on whether the origin of the universe is a knowable topic.

Then was not non-existent nor existent: there was no realm of air, no sky beyond it.
What covered in, and where? and what gave shelter? Was water there, unfathomed depth of water? […]
Who verily knows and who can here declare it, whence it was born and whence comes this creation?
The Gods are later than this world’s production. Who knows then whence it first came into being?
He, the first origin of this creation, whether he formed it all or did not form it,
Whose eye controls this world in highest heaven, he verily knows it, or perhaps he knows not.

(Rig-Veda 10.129.1-7)

It seems quite an extraordinary idea that even the gods, even the Highest Seer in the Highest Sky, could possibly not know it all.

There is another account on how the universe started, which has no equivalent in any other tradition. The universe is actually the dream of a god who after 100 Brahma years, dissolves himself into a dreamless sleep, and the universe dissolves with him. After another 100 Brahma years, he recomposes himself and begins to dream again the great cosmic dream. Meanwhile, there are infinite other universes elsewhere, each of them being dreamt by its own god.

This idea could actually reverse the cause and the effect, since humans may not be the result of the dreams of the gods, but rather the gods may be the result of the dreams of humans.

गांधी ने आज़ादी दिलाई, ऐसा कहना और बताना, क्रांतिकारियों और शहीदों का अपमान है

भारत के राष्ट्रीय सुरक्षा सलाहकार अजित डोवाल कोई भाजपा के नेता नहीं है, ये तो अपनी पूरी जिंदगी कांग्रेसी सरकारों के अन्तर्गत ही ख़ुफ़िया विभाग के अफसर रहे है अजित डोवाल ने बताया की भारत को आखिर आज़ादी कैसे मिली, क्या अंग्रेजो को गाँधी-नेहरू ने भगा दिया क्या अंग्रेज गाँधी-नेहरू के डर से भारत को छोड़कर भाग गए, गाँधी-नेहरू ने अंग्रेजो को भगा कर भारत को आज़ादी दिला दी

ऐसा भारत के बहुत लोग समझते है, क्योंकि उनको यही पाठ पढ़ाया जाता है, वैसे एक तस्वीर देखें, आपको अंदाजा लग जायेगा की अंग्रेजो और गाँधी-नेहरू के बीच कितना युद्ध था, संघर्ष था

अरे ये क्या, भारतीयों को “ब्लडी इंडियंस” कहने वाला माउंट बैटन और भारतीयों का तथाकथित मसीहा एक साथ बैठकर चाय पी रहे है, बेशक दोनों के बीच काफी संघर्ष रहा होगा

वैसे क्रांतिकारियों को जेल में बंद कर अंग्रेज यातना देते थे, परंतु गाँधी-नेहरू जो अंग्रेजो को भारत से भगा देने वालो के नेता थे, उनको अंग्रेज जेलों में बस कुछ दिन रखते थे, और यातना छोड़िये, कलम और पेपर दिया करते थे, की लिखो अपनी किताबें और आर्टिकल

* सावरकर को अंग्रेजो ने जेल में कोई कलम या किताब नहीं दी, वो अंडमान की जेल में अपने नाख़ून से जेल की दीवार पर “भारत माता की जय” लिखा करते थे

खैर, अजित डोवाल ने बताया की गाँधी ने 1942 में एक आंदोलन किया था, “भारत छोड़ो आंदोलन” जिसे “क्विटइंडिया” आंदोलन भी कहा जाता है, वो आंदोलन बिलकुल फ्लॉप हो गया और उस समय दूसरा विश्व युद्ध चल रहा था

जितने भारतीय गाँधी के साथ नहीं थे उस से अधिक भारतीय अंग्रेजो की तरफ से लड़ने के लिए अंग्रेजी सेना में भर्ती होकर यूरोप गए थे, लगभग 25 लाख भारतीय अंग्रेजो की सेना में शामिल हुए थे
1945 तक अंग्रेज, अमरीका इत्यादि के सहयोग से दूसरा विश्व युद्ध जीत चुके थे, अंग्रेजो के पास अब अमरीका जैसा शक्तिशाली साथी भी था

और यहाँ 60 हज़ार भारतियों की सेना लेकर बोस अंग्रेजो से लड़ रहे थे, 60 हज़ार में से 40 हज़ार भारतीय सैनिक शहीद हो चुके थे, और 1945 आ चूका था परंतु भारतीयों में ऐसा जोश था की वो आज़ादी प्राप्त करने के लिए शहीद पर शहीद हो रहे थे, 1 अंग्रेज मरता था तो 15 आज़ाद हिन्द फ़ौज के सैनिक मरते थे, पर फिर भी भारतीय लड़े जा रहे थे

और वहां यूरोप से दूसरा विश्व युद्ध जीतकर लगभग 25 लाख भारतीय सैनिक वापस भारत में पहुच चुके थे, 1945 के बाद अंग्रेजी हुकूमत को रिपोर्ट मिली की यूरोप से वापस लौटे भारतीय सैनिक, धीरे धीरे आज़ाद हिन्द फ़ौज में शामिल होते जा रहे है

अजित डोवाल ने बताया की इसी रिपोर्ट ने अंग्रेजो की नींद उड़ा दी, क्योंकि आज़ाद हिन्द के सैनिक पूर्वोत्तर की तरफ ही थे, परंतु यूरोप से लौटे भारतीय सैनिक, कराची, जबलपुर, बरेली, अम्बाला, पुणे, आसनसोल सभी जगह लाखो
की संख्या में थे, कुल मिलाकर 25 लाख भारतीय सैनिक थे

और आज़ाद हिन्द के फ़ौज के लगातार शहीद होते सैनिको से ये 25 लाख सैनिक लगातार प्रभावित हो रहे थे, और वहां बोसतुम मुझे खून दो मैं तुम्हे आज़ादी दूंगा” का नारा लगा रहे थे, अंग्रेजो को इस रिपोर्ट ने अंदर तक हिला दिया और उनको पुणे, अम्बाला, आसनसोल, लाहौर, कराची, जबलपुर, बरेली में
अंग्रेजी सैनिको के शव दिखाई देने लग पड़े

और इसी डर से अंग्रेज रातों रात, हड़बड़ी में ही गाँधी-नेहरू-जिन्ना को भारत सौंपकर, सबकुछ छोड़कर चले गए
अजित डोवाल ने बताया की बोस और आज़ाद हिन्द फ़ौज के सैनिको तथा यूरोप से लौटे भारतीय सैनिको के दबाव के कारण अंग्रेज भारत से भागे, न की नेहरू-गाँधी ने अंग्रेजो को मार भगाया

गाँधी-नेहरू ने भारत को आज़ादी दिलाई, ऐसा कहना, बताना या सोचना भी उन हज़ारों सैनिको का अपमान है जिन्होंने असल में भारत को आज़ादी दिलाई

1967 का भारत चीन युद्ध : जब भारत ने चीन को सिर्फ हराया ही नहीं बल्कि बुरी तरह रगड़ा भी था

1962 में चीन से मिली हार की टीस आज भी भारतीयों के दिल में बरकरार है, पर कम ही भारतीय जानते होंगे कि, इस घटना के पांच वर्ष बाद 1967 में हमारे जांबाज सैनिकों ने चीन को जो सबक सिखाया था, उसे वह कभी भुला नहीं पायेगा।

यह सबक भी उन कारणों में से एक है जो चीन को भारत के खिलाफ किसी दुस्साहस से रोकता है। 1967 में भारतीय सैनिकों ने चीनी दुस्साहस का मुंहतोड़ जवाब देते हुए सैकड़ों चीनी सैनिकों को न सिर्फ मार गिराया था, बल्कि उनके कई बंकरों को ध्वस्त कर दिया था। यह युद्ध सिक्किम में लड़ा गया था जब चीन ने सिक्किम पर अपना नाजायज हक जताया था। सिक्किम के नाथू ला और चो ला फ्रंट पर ये युद्ध लड़ा गया था। इस युद्ध में 88 भारतीय सैनिक बलिदान हुये थे जबकि 400 चीनी सैनिक मारे गए थे। 14,200 फीट पर स्थित नाथु ला दर्रा तिब्बत-सिक्किम सीमा पर है, जिससे होकर पुराना गंगटोक-यातुंग-ल्हासा व्यापार मार्ग गुजरता है। वैसे तो सिक्किम-तिब्बत सीमा निर्धारण स्पष्ट ढंग से किया जा चुका है, पर चीन ने कभी भी सिक्किम को भारत का हिस्सा नहीं माना। 1965 के भारत-पाक युद्घ के दौरान चीन ने भारत को नाथु ला एवं जेलेप ला दर्रे खाली करने को कहा।

भारत के 17 माउंटेन डिविजन ने जेलेप ला को तो खाली कर दिया, लेकिन नाथु ला पर भारत का आधिपत्य जारी रहा। आज भी जेलेप ला चीन के कब्जे में है। नाथू ला दोनों देशों के बीच टकराव का बिंदु बन गया। 1967 के टकराव के दौरान भारत की 2 ग्रेनेडियर्स बटालियन के जिम्मे नाथु ला की सुरक्षा थी। इस बटालियन की कमान तब ल़े कर्नल (बाद में ब्रिगेडियर) राय सिंह के हाथों में थी। नाथु ला दर्रे पर सैन्य गश्त के दौरान दोनों देशों के सैनिकों के बीच अक्सर जुबानी जंग का माहौल बना रहता था जो शीघ्र ही धक्कामुक्की में तब्दील हो गया। 6 सितंबर, 1967 को धक्कामुक्की की एक घटना का संज्ञान लेते हुए भारतीय सेना ने तनाव दूर करने के लिए नाथु ला से लेकर सेबू ला तक के दर्रे के बीच में तार बिछाने का फैसला किया। यह जिम्मा 70 फील्ड कंपनी ऑफ इंजीनियर्स एवं 18 राजपूत की एक टुकड़ी को सौंपा गया। जब बाड़बंदी शुरू हुई तो चीनी सेना के एक प्रतिनिधि ने राय सिंह से फौरन यह काम रोकने को कहा।

दोनों ओर से कहासुनी शुरू हुई और चीनी अधिकारी के साथ धक्कामुक्की से तनाव बढ़ गया। चीनी सैनिक तुरंत अपने बंकर में लौट गए और भारतीय इंजीनियरों ने तार डालना जारी रखा। थोड़ी देर के बाद ही चीनी सैनिकों ने भारतीयों पर गोलियां बरसानी शुरू कर दीं। भारतीय सैनिकों को शुरू में भारी नुकसान झेलना पड़ा, क्योंकि उन्हें चीन से ऐसे कदम का अंदेशा नहीं था। मोर्चे पर सेना का नेर्तित्व कर रहे राय सिंह खुद जख्मी हो गए। वहीं दो जांबाज अधिकारियों 2 ग्रेनेडियर्स के कैप्टन डागर एवं 18 राजपूत के मेजर हरभजन सिंह के नेतृत्व में भारतीय सैनिकों के एक छोटे दल ने चीनी सैनिकों का मुकाबला करने की भरपूर कोशिश की और इस प्रयास में दोनों अधिकारी शहीद हो गए। थोड़ी देर में ही भारत के 70 सैनिक मारे जा चुके थे और कई घायल हुए। इसके बाद भारत की ओर से जो जवाबी हमला हुआ उसे चीन आजतक नहीं भूल पाया है। भारतीय सैनिकों की जवाबी कार्यवाही में 400 से अधिक चीनी सैनिक जगह पर ही मारे गये और सैकड़ो घायल हो गये। कई चीनी बंकर ध्वस्त कर दिए गए।

रात में चीनी सैनिक अपने मारे गए साथियों की लाशें उठाकर ले गए और भारत पर सीमा का उल्लंघन करने का आरोप गढ़ा गया। 15 सितंबर को ले. ज. जगजीत अरोरा एवं ले. ज. सैम मानेकशॉ समेत कई वरिष्ठ अधिकारियों की मौजूदगी में सैनिकों के शवों की अदला-बदली हुई। 1 अक्टूबर, 1967 को चीनी सेना ने एक बार फिर दुस्साहस करते हुए चो ला इलाके में फिर से हमला बोल दिया जिसपर वहां मुस्तैद 7/11 गोरखा राइफल्स एवं 10 जैक राइफल्स नामक भारतीय बटालियनों ने चीन को एक बार फिर बुरी तरह से रगड़ा। ये दोनों सबक चीन को आज तक सीमा पर गोली बरसाने से रोकते हैं। तब से आज तक एक भी गोली भारत चीन सीमा पर नहीं चली है। इस युद्ध के हीरो थे राजपुताना रेजिमेंट के मेजर जोशी , कर्नल राय सिंह , मेजर हरभजन सिंह।

गोरखा रेजिमेंट के कृष्ण बहादुर, देवीप्रसाद ने कमाल कर दिया था, जब इन वीर सैनिको की गोलियां खत्म हो गयी थी तो इन गोरखाओं ने कई चीनियों को अपनी खुखरी से ही काट डाला था। कई गोलियां शरीर में लिए हुए मेजर जोशी ने चार चीनी अधिकारियों को अकेले ही मौत के घाट उतार दिया था। इन सब वीरों की याद में नाथू ला में एक भव्य स्मारक भी बनाया गया हैं जहाँ हमेशा पर्यटकों का तांता लगा रहता है। इस इलाके में अगर भारत और चीन की पोस्ट को देखें तो दोनों के बीच की दूरी महज 700 फुट है। इस इलाके में जवान ऐसे बंकरों में रहते हैं और 24 घंटे भारतीय सीमा की रखवाली करते हैं। इस लड़ाई के बाद से चीन ने चोला इलाके में कभी दखल देना ठीक नहीं समझा। इसकी एक और वजह है यहां भारत की चौकियां बेहद ऊंची हैं और लड़ाई की सूरत में इसे फायदेमंद समझा जाता है।

करीब साढ़े चौदह हजार फुट की उंचाई पर बसा है चोला पास और इसकी पोस्ट इससे भी ऊपर यानी 15 हजार फुट की ऊंचाई पर हैं। यही वजह है की भारत चीन सीमा के इस इलाके में ना सिर्फ भारत की जीत की कहानी लिखी गई बल्कि अब यहां उस जीत की कहानी को स्मारक की शक्ल में हमेशा के लिए अमर बना दिया गया है।